The Scream is the popular name given to a composition created by Norwegian Expressionist artist Edvard Munch in 1893. Munch recalled that he had been out for edvard Munch – Early Masterpieces PDF walk at sunset when suddenly the setting sunlight turned the clouds „a blood red“.
Författare: Edvard Munch.
The early masterpieces of Norwegian artist Edvard Munch, pioneer of modern art, who developed a Nordic variant of modern painting.
Munch created four versions in paint and pastels, as well as a lithograph stone from which several prints survive. Both of the painted versions have been stolen, but since recovered. One of the pastel versions commanded the fourth highest nominal price paid for a painting at auction. I sensed an infinite scream passing through nature. One evening I was walking along a path, the city was on one side and the fjord below.
I stopped and looked out over the fjord—the sun was setting, and the clouds turning blood red. I painted this picture, painted the clouds as actual blood. Among theories advanced to account for the reddish sky in the background is the artist’s memory of the effects of the powerful volcanic eruption of Krakatoa, which deeply tinted sunset skies red in parts of the Western hemisphere for months during 1883 and 1884, about a decade before Munch painted The Scream. A Peruvian mummy at La Specola, Florence. In 1978, the Munch scholar Robert Rosenblum suggested that the strange, sexless creature in the foreground of the painting was inspired by a Peruvian mummy, which Munch could have seen at the 1889 Exposition Universelle in Paris. The imagery of The Scream has been compared to that which an individual suffering from depersonalization disorder experiences, a feeling of distortion of the environment and one’s self. Arthur Lubow has described The Scream as „an icon of modern art, a Mona Lisa for our time.
It has been widely interpreted as representing the universal anxiety of modern man. Munch created four versions in paint and pastels. It is in the collection of the National Gallery of Norway in Oslo. Additionally, Munch created a lithograph stone of the composition in 1895 from which several prints produced by Munch survive. Only approximately four dozen prints were made before the original stone was resurfaced by the printer in Munch’s absence. The material composition of the 1893 painted version was examined in 2010. The Scream has been the target of a number of thefts and theft attempts.
Some damage has been suffered in these thefts. On 12 February 1994, the same day as the opening of the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, two men broke into the National Gallery, Oslo, and stole its version of The Scream, leaving a note reading „Thanks for the poor security“. The 1910 version of The Scream was stolen on 22 August 2004, during daylight hours, when masked gunmen entered the Munch Museum in Oslo and stole it and Munch’s Madonna. On 31 August 2006, Norwegian police announced that a police operation had recovered both The Scream and Madonna, but did not reveal detailed circumstances of the recovery. The paintings were said to be in a better-than-expected condition. We are 100 percent certain they are the originals,“ police chief Iver Stensrud told a news conference. The damage was much less than feared.
120 million at auction on 2 May 2012. 5 million at Christie’s two years prior on 4 May 2010. The Silence“ from Doctor Who, have an appearance partially based on The Scream. It was used on the cover of some editions of Arthur Janov’s book The Primal Scream.
1984, pop artist Andy Warhol made a series of silkscreen prints copying works by Munch, including The Scream. His stated intention was to desacralize the painting by making it into a mass-reproducible object. Munch had already begun that process, however, by making a lithograph of the work for reproduction. The principal alien antagonists depicted in the 2011 BBC series of Doctor Who, named „The Silence“, have an appearance partially based on The Scream.
In 2013, The Scream was one of four paintings that the Norwegian postal service chose for a series of stamps marking the 150th anniversary of Edvard Munch’s birth. The painting features in chapter 12 of Philip K. Dick’s novel, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? The two bounty hunters, Deckard and Resch are on the trail of Luba Luft, a suspect android. A simplified version of the subject of the painting is one of the pictographs that was considered by the US Department of Energy for use as a non-language-specific symbol of danger in order to warn future human civilizations of the presence of radioactive waste. In 2016, Good Smile Company produced a figma action figure based on The Scream.
As possibly the earliest version of The Scream, this pastel appears to be the sketch in which Munch mapped out the essentials of the composition. 1893: oil, tempera and pastel on cardboard. Perhaps the most recognizable version, located at the National Gallery in Oslo, Norway. About 45 prints were made before the printer repurposed the lithograph stone. A few were hand colored by Munch.