Jump to navigation Jump to search This article dawn of an Evil Millennium PDF about the general form of bagpipes. For specific types of bagpipe, see List of bagpipes. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Amokläufe, Terroranschläge, Vergeltungskriege, Umweltkatastrophen und globale Seuchen: Seit Beginn des neuen Jahrtausends scheint ein Schreckensszenario das nächste zu jagen. In der Alltagsberichterstattung der omnipräsenten Massenmedien werden diese grauenvollen Ereignisse zu einer apokalyptischen Horrorgeschichte umgedeutet und ein Klima der Angst erzeugt.
Die Sphäre der Kultur(industrie) bleibt von den breit geführten Angstdiskursen nicht unberührt: Horror hat Hochkonjunktur, egal ob in Film oder Fernsehen, Literatur oder Comic, Rockmusik oder Videogame. Beste Voraussetzungen also für ein "böses Millennium", ein Zeitalter voller Schrecken.
In "Dawn of an Evil Millennium" widmen sich 92 Beiträge den Phänomenen des jüngsten Horrors, von "Silent Hill" und "Resident Evil" über "True Blood" und "Dead Set" bis hin zu "The Walking Dead", den "Hostel"-Filmen und "Saw 3D". Das weite Spektrum kulturwissenschaftlicher Ansätze kommt zur Anwendung, um die Vielfalt der neuen Horrorwelle in aller Prägnanz zu analysieren.
Hendrick ter Brugghen – Bagpipe Player – Google Art Project. Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. An adaptation of the „Skye Boat Song“ for Great Highland bagpipes played by the Clan Stewart Pipe Band. A set of bagpipes minimally consists of an air supply, a bag, a chanter, and usually at least one drone. The most common method of supplying air to the bag is through blowing into a blowpipe or blowstick. In some pipes the player must cover the tip of the blowpipe with their tongue while inhaling, but most blowpipes have a non-return valve that eliminates this need.
In recent times, there are many instruments that assist in creating a clean air flow to the pipes and assist the collection of condensation. An innovation, dating from the 16th or 17th century, is the use of a bellows to supply air. In these pipes, sometimes called „cauld wind pipes“, air is not heated or moistened by the player’s breathing, so bellows-driven bagpipes can use more refined or delicate reeds. The bag is an airtight reservoir that holds air and regulates its flow via arm pressure, allowing the player to maintain continuous even sound. The player keeps the bag inflated by blowing air into it through a blowpipe or pumping air into it with a bellows.
Materials used for bags vary widely, but the most common are the skins of local animals such as goats, dogs, sheep, and cows. Holes are then cut to accommodate the stocks. The chanter is the melody pipe, played with two hands. North Africa, in the Balkans, and in Southwest Asia. The chanter is usually open-ended, so there is no easy way for the player to stop the pipe from sounding.
Thus most bagpipes share a constant, legato sound where there are no rests in the music. Primarily because of this inability to stop playing, technical movements are used to break up notes and to create the illusion of articulation and accents. A practice chanter is a chanter without bag or drones, allowing a player to practice the instrument quietly and with no variables other than playing the chanter. The term chanter is derived from the Latin cantare, or „to sing“, much like the modern French word chanteur. The note from the chanter is produced by a reed installed at its top.
Bagpipes players from The City Of Auckland Pipe Band. Exceptions are generally those pipes which have a double-chanter instead. A drone is most commonly a cylindrically-bored tube with a single reed, although drones with double reeds exist. Depending on the type of pipes, the drones may lie over the shoulder, across the arm opposite the bag, or may run parallel to the chanter.
Some drones have a tuning screw, which effectively alters the length of the drone by opening a hole, allowing the drone to be tuned to two or more distinct pitches. The tuning screw may also shut off the drone altogether. In most types of pipes, where there is one drone it is pitched two octaves below the tonic of the chanter. The evidence for pre-Roman era bagpipes is still uncertain but several textual and visual clues have been suggested. The Oxford History of Music says that a sculpture of bagpipes has been found on a Hittite slab at Euyuk in the Middle East, dated to 1000 BC. In the early part of the second millennium, definite clear attestations of bagpipes began to appear with frequency in Western European art and iconography.
And ther-with-al he broghte us out of towne. Bagpipes were also frequent subjects for carvers of wooden choir stalls in the late 15th and early 16th century throughout Europe, sometimes with animal musicians. They make it clear that bagpipes varied hugely throughout Europe, and even within individual regions. Many examples of early folk bagpipes in continental Europe can be found in the paintings of Brueghel, Teniers, Jordaens, and Durer. The first clear reference to the use of the Scottish Highland bagpipes is from a French history, which mentions their use at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547. Evidence of the bagpipe in Ireland occurs in 1581, when John Derrick’s The Image of Irelande clearly depicts a bagpiper. Derrick’s illustrations are considered to be reasonably faithful depictions of the attire and equipment of the English and Irish population of the 16th century.
As Western classical music developed, both in terms of musical sophistication and instrumental technology, bagpipes in many regions fell out of favour due to their limited range and function. This triggered a long, slow decline that continued, in most cases, into the 20th century. A Canadian soldier plays the bagpipes during the War in Afghanistan. Bagpipes are frequently used during funerals and memorials, especially among fire department, military and police forces in the United Kingdom, Ireland, the Commonwealth realms, and the US.