Jump to navigation Jump to search „Language Teaching“ redirects here. This article is about classroom learning of cambridge English for Human Resources Student’s Book with Audio CDs (2) PDF second language. For natural acquisition, see Second-language acquisition. Language education refers to the process and practice of acquiring a second or foreign language.
Författare: George Sandford.
Cambridge English for Human Resources covers a wide range of topics of concern to human resources and personnel development, from understanding the essentials of resourcing and outsourcing through to strategic HR. The ten standalone units allow learners to focus on the areas of HR and Personnel Development most important to them. As well as teaching the specialist vocabulary and theory of HR, the course also develops job-specific skills such as coaching, designing and implementing appraisal systems, managing conflict and others. Thanks to the Audio CD that includes the complete listening material from the Student’s Book the course is ideal for both self-study and classroom teaching. The course requires no specialist knowledge on the part of the teacher as free comprehensive teacher’s notes are available online.
It is primarily a branch of applied linguistics, however can be considered an interdisciplinary field. Increasing globalization has created a great need for people in the workforce who can communicate in multiple languages. Common languages are used in areas such as trade, tourism, international relations, technology, media, and science. The need to learn foreign languages is as old as human history itself.
In the Ancient Near East, Akkadian was the language of diplomacy, as in the Amarna letters. In this work, Comenius also outlined his theory of language acquisition. He is one of the first theorists to write systematically about how languages are learned and about methods for teaching languages. He held that language acquisition must be allied with sensation and experience.
The schoolroom should have models of things, or else pictures of them. Grammar schools“ from the 16th to 18th centuries focused on teaching the grammatical aspects of Classical Latin. Advanced students continued grammar study with the addition of rhetoric. The study of modern languages did not become part of the curriculum of European schools until the 18th century. Based on the purely academic study of Latin, students of modern languages did much of the same exercises, studying grammatical rules and translating abstract sentences.
Oral work was minimal, and students were instead required to memorize grammatical rules and apply these to decode written texts in the target language. The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Innovation in foreign language teaching began in the 19th century and became very rapid in the 20th century. It led to a number of different and sometimes conflicting methods, each claiming to be a major improvement over the previous or contemporary methods. However, anecdotal evidence for successful second or foreign language learning is easy to find, leading to a discrepancy between these cases and the failure of most language programs.
This tends to make the research of second language acquisition emotionally charged. Most books on language teaching list the various methods that have been used in the past, often ending with the author’s new method. These new methods are usually presented as coming only from the author’s mind, as the authors generally give no credence to what was done before and do not explain how it relates to the new method. There have been two major branches in the field of language learning, the empirical and theoretical, and these have almost completely separate histories, with each gaining ground over the other at one time or another.
Examples of researchers on the empiricist side are Jesperson, Palmer, and Leonard Bloomfield, who promote mimicry and memorization with pattern drills. On the theoretical side are, for example, Francois Gouin, M. De Sauzé, whose rationalist theories of language acquisition dovetail with linguistic work done by Noam Chomsky and others. Over time, language education has developed in schools and has become a part of the education curriculum around the world. In some countries, such as Australia, it is so common nowadays for a foreign language to be taught in schools that the subject of language education is referred to LOTE or Language Other Than English. In the majority of English-speaking education centers, French, Spanish and German are the most popular languages to study and learn.