Anthony Ashley Cooper, Third Earl of Shaftesbury: Standard Edition / II. Moral and Political Philosophy. Band 2 PDF

English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the „Father of Liberalism“. Parliamentarian forces during the early part of the English Civil War. In 1647, Locke was sent to the anthony Ashley Cooper, Third Earl of Shaftesbury: Standard Edition / II. Moral and Political Philosophy. Band 2 PDF Westminster School in London under the sponsorship of Alexander Popham, a member of Parliament and his father’s former commander.


Författare: Anthony Earl of Shaftesbury.
The earliest published versions of both ›The Moralists‹ and ›Inquiry‹ underwent considerable revision before the final texts appeared in Shaftesbury’s ›Characteristicks‹. The Standard Edition presents in each case a parallel text – the original treatise beside the finished product; readers will thus be able to follow the process of change. (For the German translation of both works see Volume II, 3.) ›The Moralists‹ and ›Inquiry‹ are possibly the best known of the writings in ›Characteristicks‹. Placed side by side to form the second volume of the ›Joint-Tracts‹, the two could in fact scarcely be more divergent. In ›Inquiry‹ Shaftesbury uses stringent argumentation to set forth his moral philosophy: a »Study of Happiness« and »Matter of Practice« intended as manual on how to be good. Later, in ›Miscellaneous Reflections‹, the author of ›Inquiry‹ would be described as »a formal and profess’d Philosopher, a System-Writer, a Dogmatist, and Expounder« – the self-ironicizing words of the Earl spoken in the persona of a critic. ›The Moralists‹, by contrast, is a masterly philosophical dialogue; clearly meant to evoke the Socratic tradition as represented by Plato and Xenophon, the form is used by Shaftesbury as a medium through which to create an elegant literary portrayal of contemporary people and issues. The resulting work is a classic of modern essays in the genre. – The two treatises encompass all central themes discussed in ›Characteristicks‹.

Locke was awarded a bachelor’s degree in February 1656 and a master’s degree in June 1658. Locke had been looking for a career and in 1667 moved into Shaftesbury’s home at Exeter House in London, to serve as Lord Ashley’s personal physician. In London, Locke resumed his medical studies under the tutelage of Thomas Sydenham. Locke’s medical knowledge was put to the test when Shaftesbury’s liver infection became life-threatening. Shaftesbury survived and prospered, crediting Locke with saving his life. During this time, Locke served as Secretary of the Board of Trade and Plantations and Secretary to the Lords Proprietor of Carolina, which helped to shape his ideas on international trade and economics. Shaftesbury, as a founder of the Whig movement, exerted great influence on Locke’s political ideas.

Locke became involved in politics when Shaftesbury became Lord Chancellor in 1672. Locke fled to the Netherlands in 1683, under strong suspicion of involvement in the Rye House Plot, although there is little evidence to suggest that he was directly involved in the scheme. In the Netherlands, Locke had time to return to his writing, spending a great deal of time re-working the Essay and composing the Letter on Toleration. Locke did not return home until after the Glorious Revolution. Locke accompanied Mary II back to England in 1688. Locke’s close friend Lady Masham invited him to join her at Otes, the Mashams‘ country house in Essex. Although his time there was marked by variable health from asthma attacks, he nevertheless became an intellectual hero of the Whigs.

He died on 28 October 1704, and is buried in the churchyard of the village of High Laver, east of Harlow in Essex, where he had lived in the household of Sir Francis Masham since 1691. Locke never married nor had children. Events that happened during Locke’s lifetime include the English Restoration, the Great Plague of London and the Great Fire of London. In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Locke’s Two Treatises were rarely cited. The first American printing occurred in 1773 in Boston.

Locke exercised a profound influence on political philosophy, in particular on modern liberalism. Michael Zuckert has argued that Locke launched liberalism by tempering Hobbesian absolutism and clearly separating the realms of Church and State. But Locke’s influence may have been even more profound in the realm of epistemology. Locke’s theory of association heavily influenced the subject matter of modern psychology. European wars of religion, formulated a classic reasoning for religious tolerance. With regard to his position on religious tolerance, Locke was influenced by Baptist theologians like John Smyth and Thomas Helwys, who had published tracts demanding freedom of conscience in the early 17th century.