7 2a1 1 0 0 1-. Professional Urolithiasis PDF articles are designed for health professionals to use.
Författare: Dietmar Bach.
They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. You may find the Kidney Stones article more useful, or one of our other health articles. They vary considerably in size from small ‚gravel-like‘ stones to large staghorn calculi. The calculi may stay in the position in which they are formed, or migrate down the urinary tract, producing symptoms along the way. The other factor that leads to stone production is the formation of Randall’s plaques. Randall’s plaque and eventually a calculus.
The most common cause of bladder stones is urinary stasis due to failure of emptying the bladder completely on urination, with the majority of cases occurring in men with bladder outflow obstruction. Patients with indwelling Foley catheters are also at high risk for developing bladder stones and there appears to be a significant association between bladder stones and the formation of malignant bladder tumours in these patients. Men are more commonly affected than women, with a male:female ratio of 3:1. The difference between the sexes is gradually being eroded. This is thought to be due to lifestyle-associated factors, such as obesity and a Western diet. The peak age for developing stones is between 30 and 50 and recurrence is common. Metabolic disorders which increase excretion of solutes – eg, chronic metabolic acidosis, hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria.