This article contains private Unicode characters. The Language of Comics: Word and Image PDF proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of the intended characters. This article contains IPA phonetic symbols.
In our culture, which depends increasingly on images for instruction and recreation, it is important to ask how words and images make meaning when they are combined. Comics, one of the most widely read media of the twentieth century, serves as an ideal for focusing an investigation on the word-and-image question.
This collection of essays attempts to give an answer. The first six see words and images as separate art forms that play with or against each other. David Kunzle finds that words restrict the meaning of the art of Adolphe Willette and Theophile-Alexandre Steinlen in Le Chat Noir. David A. Berona, examining wordless novels, argues that the ability to read pictures depends on the ability to read words. Todd Taylor draws on classical rhetoric to demonstrate that images in The Road Runner are more persuasive than words.
N. C. Christopher Couch — writing on The Yellow Kid — and Robert C. Harvey — discussing early New Yorker cartoons — are both interested in the historical development of the partnership between words and images in comics. Frank L. Cioffi traces a disjunctive relationship of opposites in the work of Andrzej Mleczko, Ben Katchor, R. Crumb, and Art Spiegelman.
The last four essays explore the integration of words and images. Among five comic book adaptations of Hamlet Marion D. Perret finds one in which words and images form a dialectic. Jan Baetens critiques the semiotically inspired theory of Phillippe Marion. Catherine Khordoc explores speech balloons in Asterix the Gaul. Gene Kannenberg, Jr., demonstrates how the Chicago-based artist Chris Ware blurs the difference between word and image.
The Language of Comics, however, is the first collection ofcritical essays on comics to explore a single issue as it affects a variety of comics.
Klingonese, is the constructed language spoken by the fictional Klingons in the Star Trek universe. Described in the 1985 book The Klingon Dictionary by Marc Okrand and deliberately designed to sound „alien“, it has a number of typologically uncommon features. Klingon-speaking community, this is often understood to refer to another Klingon language called Klingonaase that was introduced in John M. Ford’s 1984 Star Trek novel The Final Reflection, and appears in other Star Trek novels by Ford. The opera ’u’ is entirely in Klingon.
A small number of people are capable of conversing in Klingon. Its vocabulary, heavily centered on Star Trek-Klingon concepts such as spacecraft or warfare, can sometimes make it cumbersome for everyday use. Okrand enlarged the lexicon and developed a grammar based on Doohan’s original dozen words. Two „non-canon“ dialects of Klingon are hinted at in the novelization of Star Trek III: The Search for Spock, as Saavik speaks in Klingon to the only Klingon officer aboard Cpt. Worf, was a Klingon—and successors, the language and various cultural aspects for the fictional species were expanded. A small number of non-Klingon characters were later depicted in Star Trek as having learned to speak Klingon, notably Jean-Luc Picard and Jadzia Dax.
Hobbyists around the world have studied the Klingon language. The Klingon Language Institute exists to promote the language. CBS Television Studios owns the copyright on the official dictionary and other canonical descriptions of the language. One Klingon speaker, d’Armond Speers, raised his son Alec to speak Klingon as a first language, whilst the boy’s mother communicated with him in English.
Alec rarely responded to his father in Klingon, although when he did, his pronunciation was „excellent“. In 2007, a report surfaced that Multnomah County, Oregon was hiring Klingon translators for its mental health program in case patients came into a psychiatric hospital speaking nothing but Klingon. Schuster, in collaboration with Ultralingua Inc. Klingon language software for most computer platforms including a dictionary, a phrasebook, and an audio learning tool. In September 2011, Eurotalk released the „Learn Klingon“ course in its Talk Now! In August 2016, a company in the United Kingdom, Bidvine, began offering Klingon lessons as one of their services.
In March 2018, the popular language learning site Duolingo opened a beta course in Klingon. There are Klingon language meetings and linguists or students are interested in researching this topic, even writing essays about the language or its users. Klingon is also used frequently as a reference to Star Trek. In 2010, a Chicago Theatre company presented a version of Charles Dickens‘ A Christmas Carol in Klingon language and a Klingon setting.
Google Search and Minecraft each have a Klingon language setting. 2010 version of the puzzle globe logo of Wikipedia, representing its multilingualism, contained a Klingon character. When updated in 2010, the Klingon character was removed from the logo, and substituted with one from the Ge’ez script. The file management software XYplorer has been translated into Klingon by its developer. Microsoft’s Bing Translator attempts to translate Klingon from and to other languages.
With the digital only release of Star Trek: Discovery in 2017, streaming service Netflix announced it would provide Klingon subtitles for the entire first season. Duolingo features a course for Klingon, that was released on March 15, 2018 and is now in beta testing. The Klingon Language Institute provides a Learn Klingon Online series of lessons to its members. The first few lessons are free to sample. An important concept to spoken and written Klingon is canonicity. Only words and grammatical forms introduced by Marc Okrand are considered canonical Klingon by the KLI and most Klingonists. However, as the growing number of speakers employ different strategies to express themselves, it is often unclear as to what level of neologism is permissible.
Within the fictional universe of Star Trek, Klingon is derived from the original language spoken by the messianic figure Kahless the Unforgettable, who united the Klingon home-world of Qo’noS under one empire more than 1500 years ago. Klingon vocabulary and grammar for all other works. Klingon has been developed with a phonology that, while based on human natural languages, is intended to sound alien to human ears. The inventory of consonants in Klingon is spread over a number of places of articulation. In spite of this, the inventory has many gaps: Klingon has no velar plosives, and only one sibilant fricative. In contrast to its consonants, Klingon’s inventory of vowels is simple, and similar to those of many human languages, such as Spanish or Japanese.