The Holocaust and the Book: Destruction and Preservation PDF

Greenwood is a historic freedom colony in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Within ten years after the massacre, surviving residents the Holocaust and the Book: Destruction and Preservation PDF chose to remain in Tulsa rebuilt much of the district. They accomplished this despite the opposition of many white Tulsa political and business leaders and punitive rezoning laws enacted to prevent reconstruction.


Författare: Jonathan Rose.
Essays on the Nazi campaign against the written word.

It resumed being a vital black community until segregation was overturned by the Federal Government during the 1950s and 1960s. Many African-Americans moved to Oklahoma in the years before and after 1907, the year Oklahoma became a state, hoping that a majority black population could build a firewall against further extension of the system of racial degradation and segregation known as Jim Crow. Many of the black Americans who traveled to Oklahoma had ancestors who could be traced back to Oklahoma. Many of the settlers were relatives of Native Americans who had traveled on foot with the Five Civilized Tribes along the Trail of Tears. When Tulsa became a booming and rather well-known town in the United States, many people considered Tulsa to be two separate cities rather than one city of united communities.

The white residents of Tulsa referred to the area north of the Frisco railroad tracks as „Little Africa“. This community later acquired the name Greenwood and by 1921 it was home to about 10,000 black residents. Greenwood was centered on a street known as Greenwood Avenue. This street was important because it ran north for over a mile from the Frisco Railroad yards, and it was one of the few streets that did not cross through both black and white neighborhoods. The citizens of Greenwood took pride in this fact because it was something they had all to themselves and did not have to share with the white community of Tulsa. Detroit Avenue, along the edge of Standpipe Hill, contained a number of expensive houses belonging to doctors, lawyers and business owners. The buildings on Greenwood Avenue housed the offices of almost all of Tulsa’s black lawyers, realtors, doctors, and other professionals.

Greenwood was a very religiously active community. At the time of the racial violence there were more than a dozen black American churches and many Christian youth organizations and religious societies. In northeastern Oklahoma, as elsewhere in America, the prosperity of minorities emerged amidst racial and political tension. The Ku Klux Klan made its first major appearance in Oklahoma shortly before one of the worst race riots in history. Around the start of the 20th century O.

Gurley, a wealthy black land-owner from Arkansas, traversed the United States to participate in the Oklahoma Land run of 1889. The young entrepreneur had just resigned from a presidential appointment under president Grover Cleveland in order to strike out on his own. In 1906, Gurley moved to Tulsa, Oklahoma where he purchased 40 acres of land which was „only to be sold to colored“. Black ownership was unheard of at that time. Among Gurley’s first businesses was a rooming house which was located on a dusty trail near the railroad tracks.

This road was given the name Greenwood Avenue, named for a city in Mississippi. The area became very popular among black migrants fleeing the oppression in Mississippi. They would find refuge in Gurley’s building, as the racial persecution from the south was non-existent on Greenwood Avenue. Gurley also founded what is today Vernon AME Church. This implementation of „colored“ segregation set the Greenwood boundaries of separation that still exist: Pine Street to the North, Archer Street and the Frisco tracks to the South, Cincinnati Street on the West, and Lansing Street on the East.

Stradford, arrived in Tulsa in 1899. He believed that black people had a better chance of economic progress if they pooled their resources, worked together and supported each other’s businesses. He bought large tracts of real estate in the northeastern part of Tulsa, which he had subdivided and sold exclusively to other blacks. Gurley and a number of other blacks soon followed suit. Gurley’s prominence and wealth were short lived.