Louisiana Indians Walking Along a Bayou. The Choctaw coalesced as a people southeastern Indians Since the Removal Era PDF the 17th century, and developed three distinct political and geographical divisions: eastern, western and southern.
These different groups sometimes created distinct, independent alliances with nearby European powers. In the 19th century, the Choctaw were classified by European Americans as one of the „Five Civilized Tribes“ because they adopted numerous practices of their United States neighbors. By the 1831 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, those Choctaw who chose to stay in the newly formed state of Mississippi were to be considered state and U. European ethnic groups to be granted citizenship. During the American Civil War, the Choctaw in both Oklahoma and Mississippi mostly sided with the Confederate States of America. The Confederacy had suggested to their leaders that it would support a state under Indian control if it won the war. After the Civil War, the Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana Choctaw fell into obscurity for some time.
The Choctaw in Oklahoma no longer considered the Mississippi Choctaw part of the Choctaw Nation. However, Jack Amos legally challenged the Choctaw Nation’s stance at the turn of the 20th century. In 1978, the United Supreme Court of the United States held that all remnants of the Choctaw Nation are entitled to all rights of the federally recognized Nation. The Choctaw in Oklahoma struggled to build a nation. They transferred the Choctaw Academy there and opened an academy for girls in the 1840s.