Peter Martyr Vermigli (1499–1562) and the Outward Instruments of Divine Grace PDF

Born in Florence, Vermigli entered a religious order and was appointed to influential posts as abbot and prior. Vermigli’s best-known theological contribution was defending the Reformed doctrine of the Eucharist against Catholics and Lutherans. Contrary to the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, Vermigli did not believe that the bread and peter Martyr Vermigli (1499–1562) and the Outward Instruments of Divine Grace PDF are changed into Christ’s body and blood. Vermigli developed a strong doctrine of double predestination independently of John Calvin.


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Die äußeren Zeichen der göttlichen Gnade.

His interpretation was that God’s will determines both damnation as well as salvation. Vermigli’s belief is similar but not identical to Calvin’s. September 1499 to Stefano di Antonio Vermigli, a wealthy shoemaker, and Maria Fumantina. He was christened Piero Mariano the following day.

On completing his novitiate in 1518, Vermigli took the name Peter Martyr after the thirteenth-century Dominican Saint Peter of Verona. Vermigli was ordained in 1525 and probably received his Doctor of Divinity around that time. In 1530 Vermigli was appointed vicar of the monastery at San Giovanni in Monte, Bologna. The chapter-general re-elected Vermigli to the Spoletan abbacy in 1534 and again in 1535, but he was not elected to lead any house the following year. He may have been identified as a promising reformer who could help with reform efforts in higher places.