Peru are the first-level administrative subdivisions of Peru. Under the new arrangement, the former peru Map PDF departments plus the Callao Province have become regional circumscriptions. The province of Lima has been excluded from this process and does not form part of any department.
Fully updated mapping for 2012.
Peruvian departments are subdivided into provinces and districts. As political and economic power increasingly concentrated in Lima, the capital city, several administrations tried to decentralize the country with little success. The 1979 Peruvian Constitution contained provisions for the decentralization of power through the creation of autonomous regions, but they were not implemented. The 1990 presidential elections were marked by the discredit of political parties as evidenced in the election of Alberto Fujimori, an independent candidate. Fujimori was forced to resign in November 2000 under accusations of authoritarianism, corruption, and human rights violations.
In the 2002 elections, most regional governments went to parties in opposition, with twelve going to the APRA and only one to Possible Peru, the party of president Alejandro Toledo. These proposals were rejected by the electorate of all departments involved with the exception of Arequipa. Thus, no merger was carried out. The APRA, which had won the presidential elections held on June 4, 2006, only won in two regions, all other national parties achieved even less. According to the Organic Law of Regional Governments, the responsibilities of regional governments include planning regional development, executing public investment projects, promoting economic activities, and managing public property. The Organic Law of Regional Governments stipulates the gradual transfer of functions from the central government to the regions, provided they are certified as capable of undertaking these tasks. BBC News, „Fujimori: Decline and fall“.