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The basic CANopen device and communication profiles are given in the CiA 301 specification released by CAN in Automation. Every CANopen device has to implement certain standard features in its controlling software. A communication unit implements the protocols for messaging with the other nodes in the network. Starting and resetting the device is controlled via a state machine. It must contain the states Initialization, Pre-operational, Operational and Stopped. The object dictionary is an array of variables with a 16-bit index. Additionally, each variable can have an 8-bit subindex.
The variables can be used to configure the device and reflect its environment, i. The application part of the device actually performs the desired function of the device, after the state machine is set to the operational state. The application is configured by variables in the object dictionary and the data are sent and received through the communication layer. CANopen devices must have an object dictionary, which is used for configuration and communication with the device.
0 to 8 bytes of data. The CANopen standard divides the 11-bit CAN frame id into a 4-bit function code and 7-bit CANopen node ID. In CANopen the 11-bit id of a CAN-frame is known as communication object identifier, or COB-ID. In case of a transmission collision, the bus arbitration used in the CAN bus allows the frame with the smallest id to be transmitted first and without a delay. Using a low code number for time critical functions ensures the lowest possible delay. The data frame with an 11-bit identifier is also called „base frame format“.
4 bits, so that critical functions are given priority. The standard reserves certain CAN-IDs to network management and SDO transfers. Some function codes and CAN-IDs have to be mapped to standard functionality after device initialization, but can be configured for other uses later. For simple network structures, CANopen supports a predefined allocation of message identifiers. Different kinds of communication models are used in the messaging between CANopen nodes. CANopen node is designated as the master, which sends or requests data from the slaves.