Ludwig II, Volume 1 PDF

After protracted clashes with his father and his brothers, Ludwig received the East Frankish Ludwig II, Volume 1 PDF in the 843 Treaty of Verdun. His attempts to conquer the West Frankish Empire of his half-brother Charles the Bald in 858-59 were unsuccessful. The 860s were marked by a severe crisis, with the East Frankish rebellions of the sons, as well as struggles to maintain supremacy over his realm.


Författare: You Higuri.
It is the mid-19th century, and a remarkably beautiful 18-year-old has been crowned King Ludwig II of Bavaria. In the midst of a confrontation with Prussia and Austria, Ludwig II retreats from reality into an exquisite world colored by the music of Wagner!

His early years were partly spent at the court of his grandfather, Charlemagne, whose special affection he is said to have won. It was not until 826 that Ludwig first came to rule Bavaria. In 827 he married the Welf Hemma, a sister of the Empress Judith – his stepmother who had married his father in his second marriage. In 828 and 829 he undertook two campaigns against the Bulgarians who wanted to penetrate into Pannonia without great success. During his time as Unterkönig, he tried to extend his rule to the Rhine-Main area. Louis was the instigator of the third civil war, which began in 839.

A strip of his land having been given to the young half-brother Charles, Louis invaded Alamannia again. This time emperor Louis responded quickly, and soon the younger Louis was forced into the far southeastern corner of his realm, the March of Pannonia. Peace was then made by force of arms. In June 842 the three brothers met on an island in the river Saône to negotiate a peace, and each appointed forty representatives to arrange the boundaries of their respective kingdoms. Louis may be called the founder of the German kingdom, though his attempts to maintain the unity of the Empire proved futile. After the death of Emperor Louis the Pious, Lothar laid claim to all the imperial rights established in the Ordinatio of 817.

As a result, Louis the German and Charles the Bald forged an alliance. Lothar I offered his nephew Pippin II, the son of 838 deceased Pippin I. At the Battle of Fontenoy, Ludwig the German and Charles the Bald fought successfully against Lothar I and Pippin II in June 841. In 852 Louis sent his son Louis the Younger to Aquitaine, where nobles had grown resentful of Charles the Bald’s rule. The younger Louis did not set out until 854, and returned the following year. The later years of Louis the German were troubled by rebellions of his sons.

The eldest, Carloman of Bavaria, revolted in 861 and again two years later. This was followed by the second son Louis the Younger, who was joined by his brother Charles the Fat. A report that the emperor Louis II of Italy had died led to a peace between father and sons and attempts by Louis the German to gain the imperial crown for his oldest son Carloman. These efforts were thwarted by Louis II of Italy who was in fact not dead, and Louis‘ old adversary, Charles the Bald. Louis was preparing for a new war when he died on August 28, 876 in Frankfurt. He was buried at the abbey of Lorsch, leaving three sons and three daughters.

His sons, unusual for their earlier behaviour, respected the divisions made a decade earlier and each contented himself with his own kingdom. In the years 872 and 873, ambassadors of the Eastern Roman Emperor Basil I came to Ludwig in Regensburg and showed that his rule was perceived as far as Constantinople. After the death of Emperor Ludwig II in August 875, Ludwig tried to win the emperorship for himself and his descendants. For this purpose, Abbot Sigihard von Fulda undertook a trip to Rome to Pope John VIII.

His wife Hemma visited Ludwig for the last time in May 875. In 874 she had lost her voice as a result of a stroke. During his stay, he donated the Berg im Donaugau Abbey as a donation to the Marienkapelle, which he built. Hemma died at the end of January 876 in Regensburg. Due to the small number of 172 royal documents from 50 years of reign, it is impossible to create a detailed picture of Ludwig’s whereabouts in the East Frankish empire.