Kita-Management PDF

The social impact of university entrepreneurship in Romania: Is the institutional discourse replicated or adapted? Jump to navigation Jump to search For Schachter’s kita-Management PDF of emotion, see two-factor theory of emotion. Attitudes and their connection with industrial mental health are related to Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation.


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His findings have had a considerable theoretical, as well as a practical, influence on attitudes toward administration. The two-factor theory developed from data collected by Herzberg from interviews with 203 engineers and accountants in the Pittsburgh area, chosen because of their professions‘ growing importance in the business world. Briefly, we asked our respondents to describe periods in their lives when they were exceedingly happy and unhappy with their jobs. Each respondent gave as many „sequences of events“ as he could that met certain criteria— including a marked change in feeling, a beginning, and an end, and contained some substantive description other than feelings and interpretations The proposed hypothesis appears verified.

From analyzing these interviews, he found that job characteristics related to what an individual does — that is, to the nature of the work one performs — apparently have the capacity to gratify such needs as achievement, competency, status, personal worth, and self-realization, thus making him happy and satisfied. However, the absence of such gratifying job characteristics does not appear to lead to unhappiness and dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg, hygiene factors are what causes dissatisfaction among employees in the workplace. In order to remove dissatisfaction in a work environment, these hygiene factors must be eliminated.

There are several ways that this can be done but some of the most important ways to decrease dissatisfaction would be to pay reasonable wages, ensure employees job security, and to create a positive culture in the workplace. High Motivation: The ideal situation where employees are highly motivated and have few complaints. Low Motivation: Employees have few complaints but are not highly motivated. The job is viewed as a paycheck. High Motivation: Employees are motivated but have a lot of complaints. A situation where the job is exciting and challenging but salaries and work conditions are not up to par. Low Motivation: This is the worst situation where employees are not motivated and have many complaints.

Unlike Maslow, who offered little data to support his ideas, Herzberg and others have presented considerable empirical evidence to confirm the motivation-hygiene theory, although their work has been criticized on methodological grounds. Herzberg’s theory concentrates on the importance of internal job factors as motivating forces for employees. He designed it to increase job enrichment for employees. Herzberg wanted to create the opportunity for employees to take part in planning, performing, and evaluating their work. Removing some of the control management has over employees and increasing the accountability and responsibility they have over their work, which would in return increase employee autonomy. Creating complete and natural work units where it is possible. An example would be allowing employees to create a whole unit or section instead of only allowing them to create part of it.

Providing regular and continuous feedback on productivity and job performance directly to employees instead of through supervisors. Encouraging employees to take on new and challenging tasks and becoming experts at a task. In 1968 Herzberg stated that his two-factor theory study had already been replicated 16 times in a wide variety of populations including some in Communist countries, and corroborated with studies using different procedures that agreed with his original findings regarding intrinsic employee motivation making it one of the most widely replicated studies on job attitudes. One such replication was done by George Hines and published in December 1973 in the Journal of Applied Psychology.

Hines tested Herzberg’s two-factor motivation theory in New Zealand, using ratings of 12 job factors and overall job satisfaction obtained from 218 middle managers and 196 salaried employees. While the Motivator-Hygiene concept is still well regarded, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are generally no longer considered to exist on separate scales. A number of behavioral scientists have pointed to inadequacies in the need for hierarchy and motivation-hygiene theories. The most basic is the criticism that both of these theories contain the relatively explicit assumption that happy and satisfied workers produce more, even though this might not be the case.