Jungles PDF

A jungle is land covered with dense vegetation dominated by trees. Application of the term has varied greatly over recent centuries and it has little jungles PDF meaning.


Författare: David Orme.
Find out all about jungles, and ‚read‘ a story about a plane crash in the jungle.

Before the 1970s, various tropical forests were referred to as jungles but this terminology has fallen out of usage. Although the Sanskrit word refers to dry land, it has been suggested that an Anglo-Indian interpretation led to its connotation as a dense „tangled thicket“ while others have argued that a cognate word in Urdu did refer to forests. Because jungles occur on all inhabited landmasses and may incorporate numerous vegetation and land types in different climatic zones, the wildlife of jungles can not be straightforwardly defined. One of the most common meanings of jungle is land overgrown with tangled vegetation at ground level, especially in the tropics. Typically such vegetation is sufficiently dense to hinder movement by humans, requiring that travellers cut their way through.

Monsoon forests and mangroves are commonly referred to as jungles of this type. Because European explorers initially travelled through tropical rainforests largely by river, the dense tangled vegetation lining the stream banks gave a misleading impression that such jungle conditions existed throughout the entire forest. As a result, it was wrongly assumed that the entire forest was impenetrable jungle. The generic term „tropical forest“ and „rainforest“ have largely replaced „jungle“ as the descriptor of humid tropical forests, a linguistic transition that has occurred since the 1970s. Rainforest“ itself did not appear in English dictionaries prior to the 1970s.

Use of the jungle to represent savageness and ferocity in popular culture. As a metaphor, jungle often refers to situations that are unruly or lawless, or where the only law is perceived to be „survival of the fittest“. This reflects the view of „city people“ that forests are such places. The word „jungle“ itself carries connotations of untamed and uncontrollable nature and isolation from civilisation, along with the emotions that evokes: threat, confusion, powerlessness, disorientation and immobilisation.

Cultural scholars, especially post-colonial critics, often analyse the jungle within the concept of hierarchical domination and the demand western cultures often places on other cultures to conform to their standards of civilisation. Former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak compared Israel to „a villa in the jungle“ – a comparison which had been often quoted in Israeli political debates. Barak’s critics on the left side of Israeli politics strongly criticised the comparison. The jungle and the aroma of meats: an ecological theme in Hindu medicine. The Dialectical History of ‚Jungle‘ in Pakistan: An Examination of the Relationship between Nature and Culture“. Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms, etymological, historical, geographical and discursive.

Tropical Forests Archived 2012-10-10 at the Wayback Machine. Mysterious Journey Archived 2012-07-02 at the Wayback Machine. Tropical Wet Realms Of Central Africa, Part I“. A neotropical companion: an introduction to the animals, plants, and ecosystems of the New World tropics, 2nd edn. OO Archived 2012-07-03 at the Wayback Machine. 1992 Two new nitrogen-fixing bacteria from the rhizosphere of mangrove trees: Their isolation, identification and in vitro interaction with rhizosphere Staphylococcus sp. 2010 Tsunami numerical modeling and mitigation.

The Amazon: The World’s Wild Places. Tropical Wet Realms of Central Africa, Part 1″. Jungle bugs: masters of camouflage and mimicry. 1997: „First contact: colonial European preconceptions of tropical Queensland rainforest and its people“. 1930 Jungle in Relation to Malaria in Bengal.