Lower Silesia’s historical coat of arms. Upper Silesia’s historical coat of arms. In the groß Leuthen 1 : 25 000 PDF half of the 2nd millennium B. Silesia belonged to the Lusatian culture.
About 500 BC Scyths arrived, and later Celts in the South and Southwest. In the Middle Ages, Silesia was divided among many duchies ruled by various dukes of the Piast dynasty. In 1742, most of Silesia was seized by King Frederick the Great of Prussia in the War of the Austrian Succession and subsequently made the Prussian Province of Silesia. After World War I, Lower Silesia, having by far a German majority, remained with Germany while Upper Silesia, after a series of insurrections by the Polish inhabitants, was split. The first signs of humans in Silesia date to between 230,000 and 100,000 years ago.
The Silesian region between the upper Vistula and upper Oder was the northern extreme of the human penetration at the time of the last glaciation. The anatomically-modern human is estimated to have arrived in Silesia about 35,000 years ago. The Celts migrated to parts of Silesia in at least two waves. The first wave of Celtic settlers came to areas north of the Sudetes at the beginning of the 4th century BC. Celtic culture in Silesia flourished during the 4th, 3rd and most of the 2nd centuries BC, but archaeological evidence points to a dramatic population crash – and even to complete depopulation of some areas of Celtic settlement – by the end of the 2nd century BC.