Entwicklungspsychologie des Jugendalters PDF

Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen Eine Bezugsperson ist die Person, zu der ein anderer Mensch eine besondere persönliche Beziehung hat. Für ein Kind ist nach der Geburt die Entwicklungspsychologie des Jugendalters PDF erste Bezugsperson. Babys und Kinder brauchen für ihre körperliche, geistige und seelische Entwicklung viel kontinuierlichen Kontakt. Insbesondere Frühgeborene, kranke und behinderte Kinder benötigen vor allem Körperkontakt.


Författare: Helmut Fend.
Was unterscheidet die psychische Gestaltung der Kinder von jener der Jugendlichen? Was sind optimale Umwelten für eine produktive Adoleszenz? Wie können Lehrer, Eltern und Psychologen auf so genannte Risikoentwicklungen eingehen? Diese Fragen bilden den Hintergrund dieses Lehrbuches, in dem der Übergang von der Kindheit in die Adoleszenz in drei Perspektiven beschrieben wird, in der endogenen, der kontextuellen und der handlungstheoretischen. Entwicklung im Jugendalter wird so als Werk der Natur, der Gesellschaft und der Person selber beschrieben und erklärt. Das Lehrbuch bietet eine systematische Darstellung der Forschung zu Entwicklungsprozessen im Jugendalter, um sowohl Psychologen als auch Pädagogen an den modernen Stand des Wissens zur Adoleszenz heranzuführen.

Auch alte und kranke Menschen benötigen eine Person, die sich ihnen liebevoll zuwendet und eine vertrauensvolle Atmosphäre gegenseitigen Verstehens schafft. Dagegen kann es durch Vernachlässigung in Altenheimen zu psychischem Hospitalismus kommen. In der stationären Psychiatrie wird manchmal eine Pflegeperson, die sich um einen Patienten besonders kümmern soll, als Bezugsperson bezeichnet. Norbert Kühne: Frühe Entwicklung und Erziehung – Die kritische Periode. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 5. November 2018 um 14:38 Uhr bearbeitet. Regelfall durch Anklicken dieser abgerufen werden.

Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. 3 159 227 159L227 159 227 159 227 159ZM230 160. We researched whether students with experience in specific hands-on activities show higher interest in these activities than students without experience. Furthermore, the relationship between the quality of the hands-on experience and interest in the respective activity was examined. In order to counteract the existing decline in interest and to motivate adolescents to pursue science in higher education, it is important to investigate situational factors that might spark or hold students’ interest in science topics as well as their interest in working scientifically. The current investigation aims to contribute to this important issue by comparing the effects of various hands-on activities on students’ interest.

They argued that investigating the influence of experience on adolescents’ attitudes would be important for science education, since experiences that promote positive attitudes could have very beneficial effects on students’ interest and their learning. Hands-on in general means learning by experience. Most empirical studies provide evidence for the assumption that conducting hands-on activities leads to positive motivational outcomes. Both groups referred, besides other factors, to hands-on aspects as facilitating motivation. Similar results have been found for biology classes. Phases that contained topics of relevance for students or practical work, for instance conducting experiments or working with microscopes, were rated as highly positive. The experimental group was taught electrolysis for nine lessons by a mixture of lecture, teacher demonstration, class discussion and practical work in small groups.

In the control group, the practical work was substituted by teacher demonstrations. The former group showed higher leisure interest in science as well as more positive attitudes towards scientific inquiry and towards scientists. No difference was found between the two groups regarding their enjoyment of science and science lessons, their attitudes towards science practical work and their career interest in science. What appear to be still lacking in science education are studies investigating the effects of various school science experiences on students’ attitudes. The current investigation contributes to this issue by examining how specific hands-on experiences influence students’ interest in these activities.

In order to give consideration to the diversity of hands-on activities, we specifically looked at individual hands-on activities in order to detect possible differences between them. A particular focus was placed on four categories of hands-on activities that are typically conducted in biology lessons, namely experimenting, conducting dissections, working with microscopes, and classifying creatures. Our second research question focused on the relationship between the quality of students’ hands-on experience and their reported interest in the activity. Therefore, interest will be strengthened when a person experiences a learning activity as enjoyable, pleasant, stimulating and important. In line with these empirical findings and the theoretical assumptions, we expected interest in the activity to be higher the more positively the hands-on activity was perceived by students. Again, we specifically looked at individual hands-on activities from the four categories in order to detect possible differences between them. Typical domains of secondary school biology education were included, namely cytology, botany, zoology, human biology and ecology.

Within these domains, we focused on categories of hands-on activities which are typically conducted in biology education classes, namely experimenting, dissecting, working with microscopes and classifying creatures. For instance, a dedicated teacher may provide students with both higher degrees of interest and more occasions to perform activities. To investigate the relationship between quality of experience and interest, bivariate correlations were calculated between the reported quality of a specific hands-on experience and students’ interest in this activity. Each table contains data about how many students indicated experience with a specific hands-on activity and about the level of mean interest in this activity for students with and without experience, respectively. In addition, the results of t-tests, ANCOVAs and correlation analyses are provided for every item. Students who had carried out experiments on detection of photosynthesis products and on osmotic reactions indicated more interest in these activities compared to students without experience.