Electronic Literacies: Language, Culture, and Power in Online Education PDF

Jump to navigation Jump to search Not to be confused with Open education. There is no universal usage of open file formats in OER. The term OER describes publicly accessible materials and resources for any user to use, re-mix, improve and electronic Literacies: Language, Culture, and Power in Online Education PDF under some licenses.


Författare: Mark Warschauer.
Documents the role in & effect of the Internet & other new digital technologies on schooling and the dev. of language and literacy; the 1st serious study of dev. of electronic literacy among students from linguistically & culturally diverse backgrounds.

The development and promotion of open educational resources is often motivated by a desire to provide an alternate or enhanced educational paradigm. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge. OER as: „digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students, and self-learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning, and research. Nature of the resource: Several of the definitions above limit the definition of OER to digital resources, while others consider that any educational resource can be included in the definition. Source of the resource: While some of the definitions require a resource to be produced with an explicit educational aim in mind, others broaden this to include any resource which may potentially be used for learning.

Level of openness: Most definitions require that a resource be placed in the public domain or under a fully open license. Others require only that free use to be granted for educational purposes, possibly excluding commercial uses. Given the diversity of users, creators and sponsors of open educational resources, it is not surprising to find a variety of use cases and requirements. For this reason, it may be as helpful to consider the differences between descriptions of open educational resources as it is to consider the descriptions themselves. There is also a tension between entities which find value in quantifying usage of OER and those which see such metrics as themselves being irrelevant to free and open resources.

Since OER are intended to be available for a variety of educational purposes, most organizations using OER neither award degrees nor provide academic or administrative support to students seeking college credits towards a diploma from a degree granting accredited institution. In order for educational resources to be OER, they must have an open license. Many educational resources made available on the Internet are geared to allowing online access to digitised educational content, but the materials themselves are restrictively licensed. Most educators are not familiar with copyright law in their own jurisdictions, never mind internationally. The term learning object was coined in 1994 by Wayne Hodgins and quickly gained currency among educators and instructional designers, popularizing the idea that digital materials can be designed to allow easy reuse in a wide range of teaching and learning situations. The term „open educational resources“ was first adopted at UNESCO’s 2002 Forum on the Impact of Open Courseware for Higher Education in Developing Countries.

20-month study to analyse and map the scale and scope of initiatives regarding „open educational resources“ in terms of their purpose, content, and funding. In September 2007, the Open Society Institute and the Shuttleworth Foundation convened a meeting in Cape Town to which thirty leading proponents of open education were invited to collaborate on the text of a manifesto. 22 June 2012 by UNESCO, COL and other partners. An historical antecedent to consider is the pedagogy of artist Joseph Beuys and the founding of the Free International University for Creativity and Interdisciplinary Research in 1973. After co-creating with his students, in 1967, the German Student Party, Beuys was dismissed from his teaching post in 1972 at the Staatliche Kunstakademie Düsseldorf. Open educational resources often involve issues relating to intellectual property rights.