This article needs additional citations for verification. During the medieval period, scholasticism became the standard accepted method of philosophy and theology. The Scholastic method declined with DIVI Jahrbuch 2011/2012 PDF advent of humanism in the 15th and 16th centuries, after which time it came to be viewed by some as rigid and formalistic.
Das DIVI-Jahrbuch bietet seinen Lesern hochaktuelle Übersichts- und State of the Art-Beiträge aus allen Gebieten der Intensivmedizin und sorgt damit jährlich für ein Update des intensivmedizinischen Wissens. Aktuelle Ergebnisse aus der Grundlagen- und klinischen Forschung werden auf ihren Nutzen für die intensivmedizinische Praxis hin überprüft, spezielle Problemstellungen in der Klinik wie auch neue Blickwinkel auf diskutierte und etablierte Themen sorgen für eine breite, aber stets relevante Wissensvermittlung. Über die rein klinisch-medizinischen Fragestellungen hinaus werden auch Themen wie Ethik, Ergebnisqualität, Organisation und Management betrachtet. Die Einbeziehung der aktuellen Vereinbarungen, Leitlinien, Statements, Resolutionen und Konsensuspapiere macht das DIVI-Jahrbuch zu einer Pflichtlektüre für alle Ärzte und Pflegekräfte in den intensivmedizinischen Fachdisziplinen.
Scholastic philosophy did not, however, completely disappear. For many thinkers, the dangers of Modernism could only be overcome by a complete return to scholastic theology. In particular, Catholic interest came to focus on the 13th-century theologian Thomas Aquinas, whose writings were increasingly viewed as the ultimate expression of philosophy and theology, to which all Catholic thought must remain faithful. This was particularly vigorous at first in Italy. Papal support for such trends had begun under Pope Pius IX, who had recognized the importance of the movement in various letters.
The most important moment for the spread of the movement occurred with Pope Leo XIII’s encyclical „Aeterni Patris“, issued on 4 August 1879. Neo-scholasticism sought to restore the fundamental doctrines embodied in the scholasticism of the 13th century. God, pure actuality and absolute perfection, is substantially distinct from every finite thing: He alone can create and preserve all beings other than Himself. His infinite knowledge includes all that has been, is, or shall be, and likewise all that is possible. As to our knowledge of the material world: whatever exists is itself, an incommunicable, individual substance.
All oak-trees are alike, indeed are identical in respect of certain constituent elements. But this statism requires as its complement a moderate dynamism, and this is supplied by the central concepts of act and potency. Whatsoever changes is, just for that reason, limited. The oak-tree passes through a process of growth, of becoming: whatever is actually in it now was potentially in it from the beginning. Through his senses he perceives concrete objects, e.
Upon knowledge follows the appetitive process, sensory or intellectual according to the sort of knowledge. Like all other beings, we have an end to attain and we are morally obliged, though not compelled, to attain it. Natural happiness would result from the full development of our powers of knowing and loving. We should find and possess God in this world since the corporeal world is the proper object of our intelligence. But above nature is the order of grace and our supernatural happiness will consist in the direct intuition of God, the beatific vision. Here philosophy ends and theology begins.