German painter working in the late „soft style“ of 24 x O du köstliche PDF International Gothic. Less is known of his life. Art historians associating the Dombild Master with the historical Stefan Lochner believe he was born in Meersburg in south-west Germany around 1410, and that he spent some of his apprenticeship in the Low Countries.
Plätzchen, Punsch und Gänsebraten: Weihnachten kann ja so lecker sein! Mal humorvoll, mal besinnlich berichtet dieses Adventskalenderbuch auf 24 Ausklappseiten von wunderbaren Gaumenfreuden, aber auch von kulinarischen Katastrophen in der Advents- und Weihnachtszeit.
Records further indicate that his career developed quickly but was cut short by an early death. Lochner’s identity and reputation were lost until a revival of 15th-century art during the early 19th-century romantic period. Triptych with the Virgin in the Garden of Paradise, c. There are no signed paintings by Lochner, and his identity was not established until the 19th century.
Altarpiece of the City’s Patron Saints with a work mentioned in an account of a visit to Cologne in 1520 in the diary of Albrecht Dürer. German Gothic art underwent a revival in the early 19th-century Romantic period when the work was seen as a climax of the late Gothic period. The German philosopher and critic Friedrich Schlegel was instrumental in reviving Lochner’s reputation. Madonna of the Rose Bower, c. Lochner’s identity remained unknown for centuries, and no other known works were associated with the Dombild altarpiece. In 1816 Ferdinand Franz Wallraf identified him as Philipp Kalf, based on a reading of a name inscribed on the cloth of a figure on the right of the centre panel. In 1862, Gustav Waagen became one of the first art historians to try to place Lochner’s works in chronological order.
His reasoning was based the assumption that Lochner developed from the early idealised forms usually associated with early 15th century Cologne, and later absorbed the techniques and realism of the Netherlandish painters. Based on their similarity to the Altar of the City Patrons, art historians have attributed other paintings to Lochner, although a number have questioned whether the diary entry was authentically made by Dürer. Documentary evidence linking the paintings and miniatures with the historical Lochner has also been challenged, most notably by the art historian Michael Wolfson in 1996. The outline of the historical Stefan Lochner’s life has been established from a small number of records, mostly relating to commissions, payments and property transfers. Through threadbare clues and supposition, mostly centred around a relatively wealthy couple that perished during a plague, believed to be his parents, Lochner is thought to have come from Meersburg, near Lake Constance. Georg and Alhet Lochner were citizens and died there in 1451. However records indicate that Lochner’s talent was recognised from an early age.
He may have been of Netherlandish origin or worked there for a master, possibly Robert Campin. By the 1440s, Cologne was the largest and wealthiest city in the Holy Roman Empire. It controlled and taxed the passage of trade from Flanders to Saxony, and became a financial, religious and artistic center. During the 1430s, painting in Cologne had become conventional and somewhat old-fashioned, and still under the influence of the courtly style of the Master of Saint Veronica, active until 1420. Lochner first appears in extant records in 1442, nine years before he died. He moved to Cologne where he received a commission from the city council for the provision of decorations for the visit of Emperor Frederick III. Lochner bought a house with his wife Lysbeth around 1442.
Nothing else is known about her and the couple apparently had no children. In 1447 the local painter’s guild elected Lochner as their representative municipal councilor, or Ratsherr. The appointment implies that he had lived in Cologne since at least 1437, as only those who had been living in the city for ten years could take up the position. He had not taken up citizenship immediately, possibly to avoid paying the 12 guilder fee.
There was an outbreak of plague in 1451, and there are no surviving records of him after Christmas of that year. On 16 August 1451 the council of Meersburg was informed by officials in Cologne that Lochner would be unable to attend to the will and estate of his parents, recently deceased. 1440s, yet is widely regarded as innovative. This was probably done where there were to be large areas of plain gilding. Saints Ambroise, Augustin et Cécile with the donor Heynricus Zeuwelgyn, c. Like Conrad von Soest, Lochner often applied black cross-hatching on gold, usually to render metallic objects such as brooches, crowns or buckles, in imitation of goldsmiths work on precious objects such as reliquaries and chalices. Saints Mark, Barbara and Luke, c.
Perhaps influenced by van Eyck’s Madonna in the Church, Lochner closely detailed the fall and gradient of light. Thus, and given his harmonious colour schemes, Lochner is usually described as one of the last exponents of the International Gothic. Because of the paucity of surviving attributed works, it is difficult to detect any evolution in Lochner’s style. Art historians are unsure if his style became progressively more or less influenced by Netherlandish art.
Phillip, panel from the upper right of the „Martyrdom of the Apostles“ wing of the Last Judgement, c. Wing panels and other fragments of Lochner’s larger works are today spread across various museums and collections. The extant works repeatedly address the same scenes and themes. Prayer book of Stephan Lochner“, Job Derided by his Wife, c. The art historian Ingo Walther detects Lochner’s hand in the „pious intimacy and soulfulness of the figures, always expressed so gently and elegantly, even in the extremely small format of the pictures“.